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Integration of 'golden spike' geologic and hydrogeological data sets

High resolution geological data sets have increasingly been collected and used in the context of groundwater mapping programs in Ontario. This has provided much more robust geological conceptual models for key areas in the province. At the same time, many advances have been made in
hydrogeology to enable acquisition of high-resolution hydraulic data in vertical profile. Here we present a few examples from Ontario to demonstrate how the collection of these two types of datasets in tandem can provide a hydraulically-calibrated, geologic framework to generate a robust, 3-D
hydrogeologic model. While the geological framework remains the key to extrapolation between boreholes, the hydraulic significance of the various stratigraphic (sub)units and sedimentary features are identified and quantified with the direct measurement of hydraulic conditions at multiple depths and
locations. These data sets are very much complementary and provide corroborating evidence and robustness to define the geometry, thickness and position of key 3-D hydrogeological units that control the groundwater flow system and contaminant pathways and transport rates.

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