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Mode(s) of Lampricide Toxicity in Larval Lampreys and Non-Target Fishes

The lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is added to   streams containing larval sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus), which   live burrowed in the substrate of streams for several years before   they undergo metamorphosis and then enter the destructive, parasitic   phase of their life cycle. Our overall goal is to determine the   mechanism(s) of TFM toxicity in larval lampreys and non-target   fishes. Our specific OBJECTIVES are to: (I) determine if TFM   toxicity in lampreys and non-target fishes is caused by impaired ATP   synthesis; (II) establish if TFM interferes with ion (Na+, Cl-)   uptake across the gills; (III) determine if higher rates of TFM   uptake explain the greater TFM sensitivity of larval lampreys   compared to more resistant non-target fishes. Due to their abundance   and well characterized physiology, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus   mykiss) is our reference non-target species. TFM is proposed   to "uncouple" oxidative phosphorylation, the process that produces   ATP in the mitochondria. Accordingly, we will measure O2 consumption   in mitochondria, isolated from lamprey and trout tissues, which we   predict will increase if ATP synthesis is impaired by TFM. The   concentrations of ATP and other fuels will also be measured, to   confirm that TFM inhibits ATP production. The alternate hypothesis,   that TFM interferes with gill function, will be tested by   determining its effects on plasma and tissue ions (Na+, Cl-), and by   tracking ion movements across the gills using radio-labeled Na+ and   Cl-. To determine if TFM uptake is greater across the gills of   larval lampreys compared to trout, rates of TFM uptake will also be   determined using radio-labeled TFM. A better understanding of TFM's   mode of toxic action could lead to:(i) new treatment protocols that   reduce TFM use, resulting in fewer harmful effects to sensitive non-  target organisms, (ii) the identification of adjuvants that could   increase TFM potency to larval sea lampreys, (iii) more thorough   classification of TFM-sensitive fishes leading to the identification   of waters where alternate control strategies (e.g. traps, barriers,   sterile male release) or TFM treatment regimens could be implemented   to minimize non-target effects, and (iv) data that could be used for   future re-registration of TFM with the USEPA and Heath Canada.

In progress
Start Date
End Date
Michael WilkiePrincipal Investigator
Associated with 2 projects
Yuxiang WangResearcher
Associated with 1 projects
Grant McClellandResearcher
Associated with 1 projects
Great Lakes Fishery Commission $ 23,817.00CADActual

Funding 54 projects for a total of $5,089,137.00
Scope of Study
Laboratory Investigation
Scale of Phenomena
Resource Management
Lake Basin Connecting Channels
Lake Erie
Lake Huron
Lake Michigan
Lake Ontario
Lake Superior
State Province
Biology And Life History
Physiology and Behavior
Prevention and Introduction
Determination of Preventive
Annex Numbers
Research & Development
Annex 17
Impact of water quality and AIS on fish and wildlife populations and habitats
Physical and transformational processes affecting delivery of pollutants
  • Annex Numbers
    Annex Numbers
    Research & Development
  • Annex 17
    Annex 17
    Impact of water quality and AIS on fish and wildlife populations and habitats
    Physical and transformational processes affecting delivery of pollutants

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