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Retrospective Analysis: Measuring the Historical Magnitude of Turbidity Plumes Using Archived Imagery and Application of Lake Surface Temperature/Water Quality Algorithms

9726680 Kerfoot Research will be undertaken in response to an Announcement of Opportunity (NSF 97- 38)for Coastal Studies in the Great Lakes. This is a collaborative research project between investigators from ten academic and government research institutions. The research is being conducted under the auspices of the NSF Coastal Ocean Processes (CoOP) program and the NOAA Coastal Ocean Program. This collaborative, 5-year research program will focus on the importance of episodic events on nearshore-offshore transport and subsequent ecological consequences. The study seeks to 1) determine what processes control the cross-margin (inshore to offshore) transport of biological, chemical, and geological materials in the coastal margins of the Great Lakes, and to 2) develop and test scientific strategies for assessing, quantifying, and predicting the impacts of multiple stresses both natural and anthropogenic, in the Great Lakes or selected coastal sub-regions. A tight coupling between contaminated sediments and overlying water exists in lakes and coastal ecosystems through the process of sediment resuspension. Satellite observations in Lake Michigan illustrate an annually recurrent episode of nearshore-offshore transport, a 10 km wide plume of resuspended material extending over 200 km along the southern shores of the lake. Preliminary evidence indicates that this episodic event may be the major mechanism for cross-margin sediment transport in Lake Michigan. This type of event impacts recycling of biogeochemically important materials (BIMS), ecosystem responses, cross-isobath transport in the Great Lakes. The program results will be applicable to similar events in many coastal areas. This comprehensive, interdisciplinary study will implement an integrated observational program and numerical modeling effort to identify, quantify, and develop prediction tools for the winter-spring resuspension event and to assess the impact of this event on the tra nsport and transformation of BIMS and on lake ecology. This component of the study focuses on a retrospective study of the southern Lake Michigan spring coastal plume using remotely sensed data. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible and thermal infrared data will form the basis of the retrospective study, whereas higher resolution imagery (e.g., Landsat MSS and Landsat TM images, CZCS images, and available aircraft data) will monitor specific events of short duration. The objectives are to assess the relationship of winter ice formation, coastal plume development, and thermal bar movement to cross-margin transport phenomena in southern Lake Michigan; to determine the timing, duration and extent of river plumes on a seasonal and interannual basis; and to utilize historical surface water quality data for empirical comparisons with the remotely sensed data.

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