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Integrated data sets from a buried valley borehole, Champlain Sea basin, Kinburn, Ontario

Data from a 97 m continuously cored borehole (GSC-BH-JSR-01), near Kinburn, Ontario, contribute to our knowledge of the geology, hydrogeology, and geotechnical properties of clay-rich, glaciated basins, and, specifically, the Champlain Sea basin. Physical properties, downhole geophysics,
portable XRF bulk-sediment geochemical composition, micropaleontological results, and pore-water geochemistry data are integrated with detailed, sedimentological descriptions to provide a multidisciplinary data set similar to the 'golden spikes' of southern Ontario. Seismic-reflection data provide a
basin architectural framework in which to interpret these results. The Kinburn data set is interpreted to record the retreat of the regional ice sheet, the incursion of the Champlain Sea, and the withdrawal of marine waters from the basin during continued ice retreat and isostatic rebound. The
sediment package sits within a bedrock basin and consists of a basal, coarse-grained unit (possibly an esker), overlain by nearly 90 m of clay-rich, marine sediments (locally known as leda clay), and is capped by an 8 m thick silt-rich, nonmarine facies. Ultimately, the sedimentological,
stratigraphic, and geochemical data collected from the Kinburn Golden Spike will provide a better understanding of glaciomarine sediments within the Champlain Sea of eastern Ontario and western Quebec. The large thickness of mud, the preservation of pore water chemistry, and the multidisciplinary
data sets make the Kinburn site a key reference site for the geology, hydrogeology, and seismic-hazard assessment of the Champlain Sea basin.

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