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A three-dimensional hydrostratigraphic model of the Waterloo Moraine area, southern Ontario, Canada

Waterloo Region is one of the largest municipal users of groundwater in Canada. Approximately 80% of its water supply is derived from bedrock and overlying sand and gravel aquifers with 50% of that being derived from aquifers contained within the Waterloo moraine (Ministry of the
Environment, 2009; Aquaresource Inc., 2009). A population of just over 500,000 people is supported by 39 well fields comprising 122 wells (Lake Erie Region Source Protection Committee, 2012). Industrial development within this area over the past 100 years has resulted in more than 800 industrial
sites with potential contaminants (Sanderson et al., 1995; Hodgins et al., 2012). There are also concerns regarding aquifer contamination from modern land use, such as application of road salt and agricultural nutrients (Bester et al., 2006). Recommendations from the Walkerton enquiry (O¿Connor,
2002 ) stressed the importance of understanding the geologic controls on surface and groundwater flow and how they can be used to predict where significant recharge and discharge areas (source water) are located, as well as where aquifers are more susceptible to surface contamination.

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